The official start of the Atlantic hurricane season may not be until June 1, but a tropical cyclone developed earlier than that date in eight of the past nine years, including 2023.
About 97% of all tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin, which includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, occur during the six-month hurricane season between June and November.
But eight of the past nine years have illustrated that tropical cyclones can roam the Atlantic before June 1 during what is technically the "offseason," proving that not every season follows a strict calendar.
Since 2015, the only year without a pre-season storm was 2022 when Tropical Storm Alex, the first Atlantic tropical cyclone of 2022, didn't develop until June 5. But it was a close call when an area of low pressure in the Gulf of Mexico was monitored for tropical development in the Gulf of Mexico a week before Memorial Day.
The early start to the season returned in 2023 after the National Hurricane Center (NHC) determined in a reassessment published on May 11 that the Atlantic hurricane season actually began in mid-January when a subtropical storm formed off the U.S. East Coast. These kinds of storms derive most of their energy from the clash of warm and cold air but don't have fronts associated with them.
According to the NHC, only 3% of Atlantic tropical cyclones occur outside the official hurricane season. While the majority of out-of-season activity happens in May and December, there has been either an Atlantic tropical storm or hurricane in every month of the year.
Recent tropical storms, hurricanes that formed before June 1
Two years ago, in 2021, Tropical Storm Ana briefly roamed the central Atlantic Ocean between May 22 and 23. It developed east of Bermuda but quickly moved northeastward away from the archipelago and out to sea.
Ana briefly produced gale-force winds over portions of Bermuda, but no other impacts were reported on land from this short-lived storm.
In May 2020, there was not one, but two tropical storms that had impacts in the U.S. Tropical Storm Arthur tracked just off the Southeast coast between May 16 and 19 and brought a soaking rain to parts of eastern North Carolina.
May 2019 had Subtropical Storm Andrea the week before Memorial Day, but it stayed over the open waters of the Atlantic southwest of Bermuda.
Memorial Day 2018 was a memorable one for residents of the Florida Panhandle as Tropical Storm Alberto made landfall near the Bay/Walton County line for the unofficial start of summer. Alberto maintained its tropical characteristics all the way into Michigan.
The early start to hurricane season in 2017 was actually in April, when Tropical Storm Arlene developed over the open waters of the central Atlantic Ocean on April 20. It was only the second tropical cyclone on record in the Atlantic to form in April; Ana in 2003 was the first, according to the NHC.
In 2016, the season started roughly as early as it did in 2023 when Hurricane Alex formed in January in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. It went on to make landfall as a tropical storm in the Azores on Jan. 15 with maximum sustained winds of 65 mph.
Then, Tropical Storm Bonnie became the second pre-season storm of 2016 in May. It made landfall as a tropical depression on May 29 on the Isle of Palms, South Carolina, and dumped heavy rainfall along coastal sections of the Carolinas.
On Mother’s Day weekend in 2015, Tropical Storm Ana – the same name as the "A" storm in 2021 since Atlantic tropical cyclone name lists are reused every six years – made landfall along the northeastern coast of South Carolina near North Myrtle Beach. Its early-morning landfall on May 10 was the second-earliest U.S. landfall by any tropical cyclone on record, behind only a February 1952 tropical storm that made landfall in Florida, according to Eric Blake, a senior hurricane scientist at the NHC.
Despite all the recent early-season activity since 2015, the NHC has not yet adjusted the start date of hurricane season, although in 2021, it did begin issuing routine Atlantic tropical weather outlooks on May 15 instead of the usual June 1.
The NHC says the peak of hurricane season is from mid-August to mid-October, with Sept. 10 marking the official peak date of the season.